This is a photo of a soil profile tool laying on 12 green. It shows a cross section of the turf, roots, 22 years of topdressing with sand and the subsoil. Topdressing every three weeks lightly with sand creates a great medium for our roots to grow and to create a smooth well draining surface. Every other year in the spring we use 10 inch deep tines on our greens to aerify the soil and break through the two different layers to encourage rooting. Check out the aerification channels with roots coming out the bottom. Here are two photos of the deep tine machine that helps us get these great roots on our greens.